What is electronic learning?

What is electronic learning? Electronic learning refers to a broad educational concept primarily characterized by the usage of electronic media and other types of communication technologies. Electronic learning encompasses any type of educational concept, or educational technology, which uses electronic media or technologies to support teaching and learning. This includes any type of teaching method which uses an electronic technology, such as a computer, the internet, DVD films, and so on. Specific types of electronic learning include internet-based training, online education, computer-based training, to name a few. This type of learning can be utilized in an almost unlimited amount of settings, provided that the setting has access to the electronic technology of materials required to take advantage of this particular type of learning. Although many people may immediately think of online education or the usage of computers in classrooms when they hear the term electronic learning, educational technologies have taken…

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The Effects of Aging on Memory

Memory is not a static process. The synapses between your brain cells are constantly changing with new memories or the recall of old memories, such as specific names to faces or the memory of how to drive a car. As memories are reinforced, the synapses –or connections—between your brain cells become reinforced as well. Essentially, this means that the stronger the synapses between your cells, the stronger your ability to retrieve memories stored in your brain. As you age, however, these synapses begin to become weaker. This process usually begins in your 20s and becomes significantly noticeable for many people when they are in their 50s and 60s. Typically, people begin to notice that certain facts—such as fitting certain names to particular faces, or remembering information or dates—becomes more difficult. For example, someone might approach another person in their work office but not be able to remember their name, despite…

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Should Children Be Allowed to Choose What They Read?

Reading is an essential life skill that many believe should be fostered in children at an early age to ensure that they have the experience, skills and knowledge necessary to handle more complicated reading later on in their lives. However, many educators are finding that it is not enough to teach children how to read—but that children need the motivation to enjoy reading a well. A recent study by the software company eReflect, who pioneered the 7 Speed Reading program software, found that children who are not motivated in their reading are overall less successful readers than their counterparts who are motivated to read. A less successful reader will not only read slower than their abilities indicate they can read, but they will retain less information from the reading. But how can educators motivate children to read in the first place? One oft-suggested solution is to allow children to choose…

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Educational system in Finland

Education in Finland The educational system in Finland has come under positive scrutiny in the past decade due to its high comparative test scores and its high rate of primary school graduation. As of 2013, Finland has an extraordinarily high rate of 99.7% graduation among its primary or comprehensive school students. In the Education Index, which was published along with the UN’s Human Development Index in 2008, Finland was listed as tied for first in education around the world with Australia, Denmark, and New Zealand. After the Education Index’s publication, the Finnish Ministry of Education released a statement attributing the success of schools in Finland to “… uniform basic education for entire age groups, highly competent teachers, and the autonomy given to schools.” There are no tuition fees for education in Finland for primary, secondary or higher schooling and full-time students are served free meals throughout their educational career. Students…

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Rote learning

What is rote learning? Rote learning is defined as a memorization technique which is based on the concept of learning through the process of repetition. Memorization refers to the process by which information is received, encoded, stored and then recalled in the brain. There are numerous forms of memorization and memorization is used in a countless number of contexts, including school education, the workplace, and everyday activities and even everyday functions. Rote learning is a particular type of memorization which focuses on the concept of learning through the use of repetition, or the repeating of information or knowledge until someone is able to recall that information from memory. Rote learning is especially popular in the field of education and learning; early education, in particular, often uses a significant amount of rote learning to teach students to remember specific information. What is rote learning used for? Rote learning is a very…

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Erickson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development: Fidelity, Love, Care, and Wisdom

Erickson’s stages of psychosocial development, developed by the German-American developmental psychologist Erik, are a series of eight different stages which Erikson believed that any mentally healthy human beings pass through as they age from infancy into late adulthood. These psychosocial developmental stages are sometimes used in conjunction with the more typical developmental stages of child-to-adult psychology, although Erikson’s psychosocial stages are more specific than the overreaching categories of regular development. Erikson’s psychosocial developmental stages are broken into challenges which must be confronted in order to pass into the next psychosocial stage of development. Ideally, these psychosocial challenges will be successfully completed in order as a person ages from infancy until their late adulthood years. However, it is not necessarily required for each psychosocial stage to be mastered or completed in order for someone to advance onto the next psychosocial stage. For example, someone who is in the young adult stage…

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Erickson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development: Hope, Will, Purpose, and Competence

Erickson’s stages of psychosocial development, developed by the German-American developmental psychologist Erik, are a series of eight different stages which Erikson believed that any mentally healthy human beings pass through as they age from infancy into late adulthood. These psychosocial developmental stages are sometimes used in conjunction with the more typical developmental stages of child-to-adult psychology, although Erikson’s psychosocial stages are more specific than the overreaching categories of regular development. Erikson’s psychosocial developmental stages are broken into challenges which must be confronted in order to pass into the next psychosocial stage of development. Ideally, these psychosocial challenges will be successfully completed in order as a person ages from infancy until their late adulthood years. However, it is not necessarily required for each psychosocial stage to be mastered or completed in order for someone to advance onto the next psychosocial stage. For example, someone who is in the young adult stage…

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Classical Conditioning

What is classical conditioning? Classical conditioning is defined as a type or form of learning during which a stimulus is conditioned to mark the occurrence of a second stimulus. A behavior is therefore learned through conditioning these responses using two different stimuli. Classical conditioning is also known as Pavlovian conditioning or respondent conditioning; Pavlovian conditioning refers to the work of Ivan Pavlov in the field of classical conditioning. Although examples of classical conditioning as a form of learning can be found before Pavlov’s iconic work in the field, the most prominent experiments on classical conditioning were done in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Classical conditioning requires two stimuli. The first stimulus is usually something which affects the body in a biological manner. The first stimuli are usually something which includes food or pain, but almost anything which elicits a biological response may be used. For example, food may…

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What Factors Affect Memory Recall?

What is memory recall? Memory recall is defined as the retrieval or recall of information, events and memories from the past. Memory recall is one of the three main processes of memory, along with memory encoding and memory storage. Memory recall is generally defined into three different categories of recall: free memory recall, cued memory recall and serial memory recall. Free recall refers to memory recall which is allowed to occur in a random order and is most often found in psychological and educational testing. For example, if an individual is given a list of information to remember and is then tested on those items by being required to recall them in no particular order, this is “free” recall because the individual’s recall is not bound to remember the information in a specific way. Free recall is also often used in educational settings, when students may be required to remember…

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The Three Components of Autobiographical Memory

What is autobiographical memory? How is it studied? Autobiographical memory is one type of memory system; autobiographical memory is usually defined as consisting of various episodes which have been remembered, or recollected, from the life and experiences of an individual. These autobiographic memories are usually a combination of episodic or personal experiences and information, and semantic or general knowledge and experience, memories. Autobiographical memory is often studied through personal recollections, both verbal and written. Written recollections of autobiographical memory can be found in diaries, journals, blogs, and other forms of written material which are based on personal experience and personal memories. Within the field of memory research, autobiographical research is often studied through “control diaries.” In one such study, a group of memory research participants was required to keep a diary of particularly memorable everyday events over a series of weeks. The diaries are then a reflection of autobiographical memory;…

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Is Autobiographical memory accurate?

What is autobiographical memory? Autobiographical memory is one type of memory system which is defined and characterized as a memory system which consists of various episodes or memories which have been recollected; these episodes or memories are a combination of both episodic–or personal and specific–and semantic–or general knowledge–memories. Autobiographical memories and the system within which they are contained are often used in everyday life to recall events which have occurred in the past in a specific order; for example, someone may be thinking about their childhood, then their young adulthood, then their adulthood, and so on. Autobiographical memories are often classified within this memory system under various themes and clusters which relate these memories of personal episodes to one another. For example, autobiographical memories are often broken into lifetime periods; these lifetime periods are made up of all information which is related to a specific period or “theme” within an…

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Autobiographical Memory

What is autobiographical memory? Autobiographical memory is characterized as a type of memory system which consists of various linear episodes or memories which occurred during an individual’s life. These episodes or memories are a combination of both semantic, and general knowledge, and episodic, or personal experience, memories. Autobiographical memory, like an autobiography, refers to memories which are unique to the personal experience of an individual and how that individual experienced an event or incident, both personally and semantically; for example, an individual who remembers an incident where they fell from a tree as a child is remembering both semantically–remembering that it was a tree they fell from, remembering the color of the tree was green, and so on–and episodically, such as remembering that their neighbor ran to their aid and remembering that their mother screamed as it happened. The combination of these memories creates an autobiographical memory that, like an…

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Retrospective memory

What is memory? In the field of psychology, memory is characterized as the process by which the human mind encodes stores and retrieves information. Information is first encoded through a process involving sensory information. It is then stored, which means that the information is maintained over a consistent period of time. Finally, the information is retrieved from storage consciously or unconsciously. The two common types of memory are short term memory and long term memory. Short term memory refers to memory which has a retrieval period of up to one minute, while long term memory can be retrieved for years afterward. What is retrospective memory? Retrospective memory is characterized as memory which involves experiences which occurred, were experienced or were encountered during the past. Retrospective memory in humans refers to any people, events, words, or other types of experiences which were in same way encountered by an individual at some…

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Prospective memory

What is memory? In the field of psychology, memory is characterized as the process by which the human mind encodes stores and retrieves information. Information is first encoded through a process involving sensory information. It is then stored, which means that the information is maintained over a consistent period of time. Finally, the information is retrieved from storage consciously or unconsciously. The two common types of memory are short term memory and long term memory. Short term memory refers to memory which has a retrieval period of up to one minute, while long term memory can be retrieved for years afterward. What is prospective memory? Prospective memory is characterized as remembering to perform a certain planned action or behavior at a designated or appropriate time. Prospective memories occur countless times during the daily schedule or life of an individual and can range from simple or almost unnoticeable tasks to situations…

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Procedural memory

What is memory? In the field of psychology, memory is characterized as the process by which the human mind encodes stores and retrieves information. Information is first encoded through a process involving sensory information. It is then stored, which means that the information is maintained over a consistent period of time. Finally, the information is retrieved from storage consciously or unconsciously. The two common types of memory are short term memory and long term memory. Short term memory refers to memory which has a retrieval period of up to one minute, while long term memory can be retrieved for years afterward. What is procedural memory? Procedural memory is characterized as a lower conscious or unconscious memory for performing certain actions. Procedural memories are unconsciously retrieved when they are needed or wanted and are generally considered to be a combination of both mental activity and cognitive or motor skills. Examples of…

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Declarative Memory

What is memory? In the field of psychology, memory is characterized as the process by which the human mind encodes stores and retrieves information. Information is first encoded through a process involving sensory information. It is then stored, which means that the information is maintained over a consistent period of time. Finally, the information is retrieved from storage consciously or unconsciously. The two common types of memory are short term memory and long term memory. Short term memory refers to memory which has a retrieval period of up to one minute, while long term memory can be retrieved for years afterward. What is declarative memory? Declarative memory is one type of long term memory, or memory which—in layman’s terms—recalls information or experiences that occurred several minutes after they happened.  Long term memories may be recalled for varying lengths of time, such as minutes, hours, days, months—or even years. The stronger…

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Types of Memory

Memory is the process of encoding, storing and retrieving information received by the senses. Encoding describes how information in the form of stimuli reaches the senses, storage is concerned with maintaining information over time and retrieval is the process of locating stored information and bringing this data into consciousness. Memory also refers to the act of remembering and the act remembered. Memory is not exclusive to human beings; memory is an organism’s ability to store, retain and recall experiences and information. The study of memory started in the field of philosophy and was later included in the fields of cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Memory can be classified according to information type and whether the information to be recalled is from the past (retrospective) or to be remembered in the future (prospective).

Physiology of Memory

Certain areas of the brain are believed to be involved in memory processing, like the amygdala (emotional memory), hippocampus(declarative learning) and mammillary bodies.To determine which areas of the brain are involved in memory processing, researchers study animal models and patients with damage to those brain areas. Memory, however, is not dependent on a particular region; adjacent areas and pathways and synaptic changes are also implicated in learning and memory. Memory building starts with encoding, which is the perception of data through smell, sound, taste, touch and sight. Information is then encoded and stored in the form of electrical charges and chemicals. Communication between neurons (brain cells) occurs via the synapse, the spaces between neurons and center of brain activity. The firing of pulses across the synapse triggers the release of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters, which attaches to neighboring cells. These power linkages form a network between cells and groups of…

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Memory Disorders

The study of memory loss in people with amnesia has created much of the knowledge of memory we know today. Besides amnesia, there are many other memory disorders, nearly all of which are caused by damage or injury to parts of the brain involved in memory processing.  Agnosia Agnosia is failure to recognize certain objects, persons or sounds. Familiar objects lose their relevance. Sometimes the geometric features of a face or object can be perceived, but the person does not know what the object is used for or if the face is familiar or not. Hearing or vision can be exclusively affected. Agnosia is usually caused by damage to the brain from neurological disorder (commonly in the occipital or parietal lobes), strokes, dementia or neurological disorders. Types of agnosia include visual, auditory, prosopagnosia, somatosensory and simultanagosia. Agnosia can disturb routine activities and affect overall quality of life. Although there is…

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Memory and Aging

Contrary to the myth that all memories are lost over time, some memories merely become harder to recall. Barring disease or injury, other memories are accessible as ever even people grow older. Although visual memory (remembering people’s faces) can degrade over time, procedural memory (how to ride a bike, how to brush our teeth) is relatively durable. Even people with early or mid-stage Alzheimer’s disease retain procedural memories. Episodic declarative memory (memory for facts and events) and spatial memory (memory for directions) also somewhat decline with age. In the early twenties, the human brain reachesits maximum size and then slowly begins to lose volume. Memory loss generally becomes evident after age 50. However, memory loss in the normal brain is qualitatively different from memory loss that characterizes Alzheimer’s disease.  As brain structures like the frontal lobes and hippocampus change and brain cells die, the way memories are encoded, stored and…

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